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前言·Foreword

亚洲是世界上面积最广袤、人口与民族最多的大陆,这里有着世界上最古老的文明,在经济、政治、文化和技术等方面都曾领先于世界。

亚洲的历史孕育了多种多样的文化艺术、宗教精神、哲学思想,甚至是国家建设的独特智慧;亚洲的人民在探索人与自然、人与社会、人与人的关系中,描绘了博大精深、绚丽多彩的文明画卷。

如果我们不了解亚洲的过去,就无法了解它的现在和未来。让我们从历史的源头开启穿越时空的旅程,寻求古人智慧,探源文明之光。

Asia is the largest and most populous continent with the most nationalities on the Earth. Being home to the oldest civilizations, it has once led the world in economy, politics, culture and technology over thousands of years.

Asia has a long history, having given birth to a wide variety of cultures, arts, religious spirits, philosophical ideas, and even the unique wisdom for state governance and development. And in exploring the relationships between man and nature, man and society and man to man, the people of Asia have produced a rich and colorful scroll painting of civilizations.

Without understanding its past, you cannot understand its present and future. Now, let's start a time journey to learn about its history, seek out the wisdom of Asian ancients, and identify the origins of Asian civilizations.

第一部分 文明肇始 和谐共生

Part I: Origination of Civilization and Harmonious Coexistence

人类在经过漫长的进化后,从食物的采集者变为了生产者;而农业带来的定居生活又催生了城市的出现,由此沿着大河流域诞生了世界上最早的文明之光。各个文明地域孕育出独特的社会生活、文化艺术和宗教哲学。

Mankind has morphed from the hunters/gathers of foods into the producers in a long course of constant evolution. The settled lifestyle brought by agricultural development led to the emergence of cities, with the lights of the earliest civilizations on the Earth glittering through the darkness out of the wildness along larger river basins. Each civilization has nurtured its own unique social life, culture, art, religion and philosophy.

1.1 文明的火种·Sparks of Civilization

在距今约10000年前至2000年前的历史长河中,亚洲的两河流域、印度河流域和黄河流域的人类祖先,从采集食物转变为生产食物,农业成为当时人类依赖的主要生活方式。一个崭新的世界展现在人类面前——人类告别了旧石器时代,跨入了新石器时代。

During the period from about 10,000 - 2,000 years ago in the long history of human beings, the sparks of civilization first burst forth on the Mesopotamia (the land between the Tigris and Euphrates), in the Indus Valley and the Yellow River Basin, where human ancestors evolved from living on gathering natural fruits and hunting wild game to producing foods, and in the course, agriculture gradually became the primary way of life over time, completing the epochal transition from the Paleolithic Age to the Neolithic one: ushering in a brand-new era and rushing into a bold new world.

三角形灰色印章

年代:公元前7500年 - 前5500年

长4.1厘米、宽2.7厘米、厚1.2厘米

叙利亚大马士革国家博物馆藏

此件三角形灰色印章,顶部为一光滑的悬挂小孔,底部中心刻有竖形长线及不规则横线图案。

    叙利亚.黑石残件

    叙利亚.石雕动物残像

    阿联酋.燧石箭头

    叙利亚.矩形印章

1.2 文明的集聚·Prairie Fires of Civilizations

大河流域因其平坦的地势、湿润的气候、充足的光热,为农业的发展提供了便利的条件。亚洲大陆上最重要的早期文明都诞生在大河流域沿岸,越来越多的人口在这里集聚,继而进一步形成了城市与国家。 With flat terrains, humid climates, and abundant sunshine, these valleys of larger rivers provide suitable conditions for agricultural development, so all the most important early civilizations on the Asian continent sprang up everywhere on the banks of larger rivers. As the populations there swelled, came along earliest cities and nations.

叙利亚.镶嵌人物画

年代:公元前2500年

尺寸(厘米):长30厘米、宽22 厘米

叙利亚大马士革国家博物馆藏

这幅装饰画是玛丽城邦寺庙中发现的众多画作之一,由象牙、贝壳、红石灰和片岩组成。动物祭祀是当时在寺庙或庭院举行的庆祝活动的重要组成部分。画面中描绘了两位庆祝者在宗教仪式中准备宰杀一只公羊,将它拍打在地上并转过头的场景。不参与屠宰的人可观看,他们紧握的双手表示祷告。

    叙利亚.祈祷者雕像

    叙利亚.双面泥板文书

    楔形文字莲花酒杯

    青铜腰带

第二部分 兼收并蓄 多元共生

Part II: Inclusiveness and Diversification

古典文明不断向外延伸,庞大帝国不断兴起,统一而辽阔的疆域使亚洲大陆各地区逐渐连结起来。不同区域的文化交汇碰撞出新的火花,使原有的文化内涵更为丰富,文明生命力更加强大。

As classical civilizations continued to extend outwards, and strong empires constantly sprang up, unified and vast territories gradually merged and overlapped with each other, linking various parts on the Asian continent. The infiltration and collision of various regional cultures created new sparks, enriching connotations of original ones and injecting new vigor and vitality to classical civilizations.

2.1 陆地与海洋的交错·Rivalry between Inland and Seaborne Empires

约公元前1200年前后,赫梯、亚述与埃及三大帝国之间常年征战不休,国力日渐式微。闪米特人趁此机会掀起了入侵浪潮:腓尼基人占领了地中海沿岸一带,阿拉米人占据了叙利亚北部、巴勒斯坦和美索不达米亚北部,希伯来人占有了巴勒斯坦和叙利亚南部。 Due to endless wars, three most powerful empires: Hittite, Assyria and Egypt were on the decline from around 1200 B.C. onwards, and the Semites seized the opportunity to launch massive invasions, with the Phoenicians occupying the Mediterranean coastal region, the Aramis taking possession of northern Syria, the northern of Palestine and Mesopotamia, and the Hebrews conquering the south of Palestine and Syria.

青铜灯

年代:公元1世纪

尺寸(厘米):长13.3厘米

阿拉伯联合酋长国乌姆盖温国家博物馆藏

此铜灯出自阿拉伯联合酋长国乌姆盖温海岸的港口城市艾杜尔。铜灯由灯柄、灯身与灯嘴组成,整体形状如一盏小茶壶。灯身顶部有圆形注油孔,原本应配盖。灯体一头有突出的灯口,开口较宽,用于安插连接灯体内灯油的灯芯。

玛瑙挂饰

年代:公元1世纪

尺寸(厘米):长69.7厘米、宽28.4厘米、高81.2厘米

阿拉伯联合酋长国乌姆盖温国家博物馆藏

这件挂饰出土于阿拉伯联合酋长国境内规模最大的古代遗址之一艾杜尔遗址。由14颗玛瑙料组成,石料打磨精细,质地圆润,有长期佩戴使用的痕迹,体现了高超的制作工艺。

    黎巴嫩.彩绘陶头像

    黎巴嫩.大理石雕孩童像

    阿联酋.石水槽形器

    彩绘马车纹陶罐

2.2 农耕与草原的交汇·Interaction between Farmers and Nomads

各农耕文明中心和周围游牧民族之间的关系非常微妙,游牧民族因其善战有时会被定居民族当做雇佣军,而游牧民族又时常入侵农耕文明建立新的政权统治。二者之间彼此影响,疆域的变化和人口的迁徙同时又带来了文化的交流。

There had existed delicate relationships between farming civilization centers and the surrounding nomadic nations. These nomads sometimes served settled farming folks as mercenaries for their martial prowess and also, from time to time, invaded and ransacked these farming societies’ newly-established regimes. The two influenced each other, and territorial re-demarcation and population migration also promoted cultural exchanges.

波斯金币

年代:公元前5世纪末 - 前4世纪初

尺寸(厘米):直径1.5厘米、重8.3克

出土地:美索不达米亚

西亚最早出现的硬币(金属货币),是在公元前7世纪左右,由位于今天土耳其西部繁盛的吕底亚王国发行。公元前6世纪中叶,波斯的阿契美尼德王朝在征服了吕底亚王朝后,控制了既是其首都又是硬币发行地的萨迪斯。

    菩萨头像

    女神像供奉石碑

    初转法论浮雕

    风神像

第三部分 交流对话 情感共生

Part III: Spiritual Communication and Emotional Affinity

世界上大部分主要宗教文化都起源于亚洲,印度教、佛教、道教、伊斯兰教等等,这些宗教都已经存在了数千年之久。在古代亚洲,它们传递着文化与信仰,今天它们仍然共同影响着全球大多数人的生活。

Most of the world's major religions cultures originated in Asia, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, etc., and these religions have been in existence for thousands of years. Religions in ancient Asia came along always with cultures and beliefs that have still influenced the lives of most people around the world till now.

3.1 复杂与多元的精神世界

印度教是全世界所有主要宗教中最古老的宗教之一,如今已有超过数亿的信徒。印度教没有创立者,也没有教义经书,其部分思想内涵由印度河流域文明诸多信仰与思想体系演变而来。雅利安人入侵印度后,又将印度教与阶层统治结合起来,发展出为人所熟知的四大世袭的种姓制度。

3.2在苦难中诞生的心灵救赎

由于婆罗门阶层的种种要求和强征勒索,公元前6世纪至5世纪印度出现了社会改革浪潮。其中一个表现是出现了苦行主义的趋向,人们通过反省和沉思,寻求内心的自由和真理——“佛教文化”应运而生。 佛教文化在印度广泛传播与阿育王也有着极大关系。阿育王统治时期向南印度大规模征讨...

3.3 阿拉伯帝国的崛起

伊斯兰教文化的诞生是亚洲历史,乃至世界历史上的一个重要转折点。先知穆罕默德约在公元6世纪末至7世纪初期创立了完整的伊斯兰教教义;在其死后不久,伊斯兰教的圣典——《古兰经》也确定下来。在穆罕默德去世后的一个世纪内,他的信徒们建立起一个横跨亚欧大陆的强大阿拉伯帝国,并不断向世界各地传播伊斯兰文化。

第四部分 开放融通 互利共生

Part IV: Openness, Accommodation and Mutualism

疆域的稳定保证了道路的畅通,陆上丝绸之路与海上丝绸之路由点成线将亚洲、欧洲乃至非洲连结起来;文明也随着经济贸易的往来传播到沿线各地。数千年来,各国使节、商队、游客、学者、工匠和教徒等沿着丝绸之路互通有无,川流不息。

Territorial stability enhances accessibility. As the connectivity within Asia, Europe, and even linking Africa, increased through land and maritime silk roads, civilizations also spread along economic and trade routes. Over thousands of years, envoys, merchants, tourists, scholars, craftsmen, and religious believers of different nationalities and cultural backgrounds have exchanged their products and thoughts along the silk roads.

4.1 陆上丝路·Land Silk Road

张骞出使西域,是中国历史上首次主动向西探寻未知世界,极大地增进了东西方的相互了解。沿着张骞开辟的道路,东亚与西域的贸易迅速繁荣起来,东方的华美丝绸流入中亚,又从中亚流至欧洲。

Zhang Qian’s Mission to the West was the first initiative in Chinese history to explore the unknown world westwards, greatly enhancing mutual understanding between the East and the West. Trade between East Asia and the West have boomed along the trail blazed by Zhang Qian, with the fine silks from the East flowing into Central Asia, and then, farther to Europe.

青铜油灯

年代:公元11世纪

直径12厘米、高12.5厘米

巴基斯坦考古与博物馆司藏

油灯灯盖和灯肩上刻有阿拉伯文铭文。心形灯嘴上刻有花纹。灯柄的下半部分绘有竖直线条,一直延伸到灯座边缘。油灯的底座绘有波浪线和装饰图案。油灯顶部的提手已缺失,挂提手用的两个小洞仍在。油灯两侧各有一个弯曲的把手,可能是用来悬挂绳子。

    叙利亚.青花釉陶壶

    叙利亚.釉陶碗

    叙利亚.梨状陶球

    伊朗.波斯锦

4.2 海上丝路·Maritime Silk Road

海上丝绸之路途经东亚、东南亚、南亚、西亚各国,抵达非洲东部、北部、红海沿岸以及欧洲,是古代世界重要的交通贸易和文化交往的海上渠道。因从中国输出的物品多为丝绸、瓷器、茶叶,从海外运至中国的货物多以香料和珠宝为主,所以海上丝绸之路又被称为“陶瓷之路”“香料之路”或“茶叶之路”。

Extending as far away as Eastern Africa, North Africa, Red Sea Coast and Europe via East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia, the Maritime Silk Road was an important maritime route for transportation, trade and cultural exchanges in the ancient world. With the goods from China mainly being silks, porcelains and tea leaves, and the goods from the West spices and jewelry, the Maritime Silk Road came down as “Ceramics Road”, “Spice Road” and “Tea Road”.

青花盘

年代:公元16 世纪

直径33厘米、底径17.2厘米、高6.1 厘米

阿拉伯联合酋长国沙迦考古总机构藏

青花盘,已修复。公元16世纪从中国景德镇进口而来,是当时海上丝绸之路贸易的热销商品。

    釉陶杯

    印度.克什米尔披肩

    印度.克什米尔披肩

    青瓷碗

结语·Conclusion

历史上的亚洲各文明各美其美,互通有无。今日的亚洲各民族文化多元,包容互鉴。在历史的启迪和现实的昭示中,我们倡导以多样共存超越文明优越,以和谐共生超越文明冲突,以交融共享超越文明隔阂,以繁荣共进超越文明固化,共同谱写美美与共,和谐共生的文明华章。

站在新的历史起点,传承弘扬亚洲璀璨辉煌文明成果,在根脉相通的基础上进行新的文明对话,必将汇聚起构建亚洲命运共同体、开创亚洲新未来的强大力量。

Each Asian civilization in history has its distinct features and advantages, needs each other and complement each other. Today's Asian nations are culturally diverse, inclusive and learn from each other. Inspired by historical experience and real needs, we uphold the concept of diversified, harmonious and inclusive coexistence instead of the theory of civilization supremacy, civilization clash and civilization segregation. We also are committed to seeking common progress and prosperity by breaking down constraints of solidified civilizations, jointly writing a new civilized chapter of harmonious coexistence and development of human beings.

Standing at a new starting point, we will continue to carry on and promote the resplendent achievements of Asian civilizations and promote new dialogues among civilizations based on common cultural roots and shared visions of development. We are committed to working together with all the countries to forge a community with a shared future for Asia and build a better world for all.

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